Saturday, February 8, 2014

Food enzymes and enzyme therapy

Discovery of enzymes

Enzymes are dynamic proteins that accelerate biochemical reactions. The word ‘enzyme’(en=in;  zyme-= yeast) was coined by German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne in 1877. Enzyme literally means ‘in yeast’. In 1897 Eduard Buchner discovered that fermentation of the sugar was possible  with the enzyme  ’zymase’. He received the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1907. The enzymes are generally produced by living cells and acts inside living cells.
Animal enzymes : A bacterium like Escherichia coli  has about 4228 proteins of which almost 1701 of them are enzymes. Mammals have more than 10 times  the  number of  proteins and enzymes  found in E. coli. The human body makes approx. 22 digestive enzymes .

Structure of enzymes

 Enzymes are globular proteins with three dimensional shape. Size range from 62 amino acid residues to over 2,500 in animal fatty acid synthetase. Molecular mass 12 kd to 1000 kd.

Enzyme action

 Each enzyme acts on a specific reactant, the substrate. Enzymes are characterized by greater activity, specificity and susceptibility to the influence of pH, temperature and other environmental changes.  Enzymes act in the presence of non-peptide cofactors or coenzymes. An enzyme lacking its cofactor is called apoenzyme and the active enzyme with its co-factor, the holoenzyme. The enzyme catalysts regulate the structure and function of cells and organisms. 

Classes of Enzymes

There are 6-major classes of Enzymes: !.Oxidoreductases (catalyze redox reactions) 2.Transferases (transfer functional groups between donors and acceptors) 3.Hydrolases (catalyse hydrolysis of substrates) 4.Lyases (Catalyse removal of a group other than hydrolysis) 5.Isomerases (catalyse inter-molecular rearrangement) and 6.Ligases (catalyse the union of two molecules). 

Michaelis constant

Km is the measure of the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate. It is generally  called Michaelis constant. Km values of enzymes range from 10-1 to  16-6 M. Km is a constant for a particular set of enzymes and substrate at optimum temperature and pH.

Properties of enzymes

Enzymes are dynamic proteins. Enzyme activity is specific which may be relative or absolute. Most enzymes are soluble in water. Enzymes are colloidal in nature. Small quantity is required for enzyme action. Temperature –dependent activity – Vant Hoff’s law states that the velocity of chemical reaction is at least doubled by a rise of 100C (Q10). pH dependent activity – enzymatic action is greatly influenced by changes in hydrogen ion concentration.

General classes of enzymes

There are three classes of enzymes: metabolic enzymes, which run our bodies; digestive enzymes, which digest our food; and food enzymes from raw foods, which start food digestion. There are thousands of enzymes in the body that carry on all the activities of building, maintaining, cleansing (detoxing), healing the body. Building & activating these enzymes requires a full complement of nutrients from natural foods. There are three main types of digestive enzymes: Lipases – which serve to break down fats (lipids), Proteases (proteolytic enzymes) – which work to break down proteins – examples trypsin & pepsin, and amylases – which breaks down starch (amylose).

The food enzyme concept

Enzymes represent the ‘life element’ of the living body. “Life is an enzyme process.” The body is dependent on enzymes. According to the food enzyme concept, enzymes possess biological as well as chemical properties. When ingested, the enzymes in raw food or supplementary enzymes result in a significant degree of digestion, lowering the drain on the organism’s own enzyme potential. The heat used in cooking destroys all food enzymes. The length of life is inversely proportional to the rate of exhaustion of the enzyme potential of an organism. The increased use of food enzymes promotes a decreased rate of exhaustion of the enzyme potential. According to food enzyme concept, “duration of life varies inversely with the intensity  of metabolism.” Animals or humans that consume food raw are healthier. Bovine milk contains 35+ different known enzymes. Grains are naturally endowed with enzymes like amylase, some protease and lipase. Honey contains considerable amounts of amylase enzyme. Fermented foods (like miso, Kabitofu, Toyu, Natto, Tempeh, masato, malakachisa, tofu,toyu, soy sauce) are loaded with enzymes. Eating enzymeless foods contribute to obesity and weight gain.

Enzyme nutrition therapy

Enzyme rich foods were first developed in Asia which include fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and various soured-milk products; fermented vegetables, such as European sauerkraut and Korean kim chi from cabbage; and soy products like miso and tempeh. Enzymes derived from Aspergillus oryzae and other fungal species are effective in the treatment of a broad range of human diseases. In tropical countries, certain fruits such as papaya and mango were found to contain very high concentrations of enzymes, and have been used traditionally for the topical treatment of burns and wounds. Food enzymes help digest our food – making more nutrients available for body building, conserve our digestive enzyme systems which gradually wear out with use and conserve our capacity to make the metabolic enzymes needed for health, detoxification, and healing.

The Enzyme Nutrition Axiom - Dr. Edward Howell

The length of life is inversely proportional to the rate of exhaustion of the enzyme potential of an organism. The increased use of food enzymes promotes a decreased rate of exhaustion of the enzyme potential. “Enzymes are a true yardstick of vitality. Enzymes offer an important means of calculating the vital energy of an organism. That which we call energy, vital force, nerve energy, and strength, may be synonymous with enzymes activity.”

Enzyme therapy

1. Enzymes are used as thrombolytics in the treatment of blood clots in the brain and heart e.g. streptokinase, urokinase.
2. Enzymes are used to assist digestive disorders e.g. amylase, lactase, papain.
3. Enzymes are used to deliver drugs e.g. hyaluronidase.
4. Enzymes are used as oncolytic agents in the treatment of cancers e.g. asparaginase for lymphocytic leukemia, neuromidase for multiple myeloma.
5. Immobilized enzymes are used to manufacture many drugs and antibiotics.
6. Serum enzyme levels are used as markers of disease of heart, liver, pancreas, prostate or bone. e.g. Aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine   kinase.
7. Enzyme replacement therapy- glucocerebrosidase for Gaucher’s disease

No comments:

Post a Comment