Sunday, November 30, 2014

Health benefits of dietary glyconutrients

Glyconutrients are plant carbohydrates. These glyconutrients combine with other molecules, proteins and lipids to form glycoforms or glycoconjugates which coat cell surfaces. There are over 200 carbohydrates or sugars found in natural resources, but only 8 are essential to bodily functions (essential saccharides/sugars). Glyconutrients come from plant roots, mushrooms and other foods and can be taken as dietary supplements.  They enhance cell-to-cell communication, modulate immune function and increase the body’s own production of stem cells. Glyconutrients have been described as “the rising star in the world of alternative medicine.”  Glyconutrients help your body heal, repair, regenerate, regulate and protect itself. Most healthy people can generate every other essential saccharide from glucose.
Glyconutrient compounds were abundant in most primitive diets but they are virtually absent from modern western diets rich in refined foods. Only two of the essential sugars, glucose and galactose are common in our diets. The 8 saccharides (sugars) serve as the building blocks for the manufacture of large molecules made of sugars in combination with proteins or lipids. Glycoproteins are molecules made of sugars and proteins; glycolipids are made of sugars and fats. It is common to refer to the sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids as glycans. Both glycoproteins and glycolipids are found at the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. In Greek, glycol means ‘sweet’; glyconutrient literally means ‘sweet nutrient.’ Strangely glyconutrients are not sweet, sometimes they are bitter and some are virtually tasteless.


Glycobiology is defined as the study of the structure, biosynthesis and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are known chemically as saccharides. Glycans   constitute a major portion of a glycoconjugate. The surfaces of most types of cells are effectively covered with a dense coating of sugars giving rise to the so-called glycocalyx (tiny antennae). These tiny antennae allow the cells to interact and to be able to absorb and process nutrients, hormones and other chemicals.

Essential sugars

There are eight essential saccharides our body needs. They are: glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, xylose, N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl galactosamine and N-acetyl neuroaminic acid (a sialic acid).
Glucose – is the primary source of energy for all plants and animals and is quickly absorbed into the blood stream. It has been shown to enhance memory, stimulate calcium absorption and enhance cell-to-cell communication.
Galactose – is found in dairy products and human breast milk. Galactose enhances wound healing, cell-to-cell communication and calcium absorption. People who are lactose intolerant may be lacking this essential sugar.
Mannose –is most important of all essential sugars. It forms an integral part of the immune system. Its deficiency can lead to inflammation and disease. The mannose sugar can reduce inflammation even in rheumatoid arthritis. 
Fucose –studies have shown that it may help long term memory, prevent respiratory infections and inhibit tumour growth. The glycoconjugates of fucose are essential to controlling inflammation and enhancing immunity.
Xylose – is important for cell-to-cell communication and also acts as an antibacterial and anti-fungal agent.
N-acetyl glucosamine – is an immune modulator and has anti-viral properties.
N-acetyl galactosamine – it helps in cell-to-cell communication.
N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid) – is important for brain function particularly for development and learning.N-acetyl neuraminic acid is helpful for clearing brain fog. It is found in breast milk, organic hen’s eggs and whey proteins.

Food sources

Glucose – nearly all ripe fruits and vegetables, honey, grapes, bananas, mangos, cherries, strawberries, cocoa, aloe vera, licorice, garlic, Echinacea, hawthorn and kelp (seaweed).
Galactose – dairy products, fenugreek, kelp(seaweed), apple, apricots, bananas, cherries, berries, peach, pear, kiwi, mangoes, avocado,  broccoli, Brussels’ sprouts, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, cauliflower, celery, potato, eggplant, peas, pumpkin, and spinach.
Mannose – Aloe vera, kelp(seaweed), shiitake mushroom, fenugreek, cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, turnips, and gooseberries.
Fucose – kelp, sea weed,and brewer’s yeast.
Xylose- kelp, guava, pears, black berries, logan berries, rasp berries, aloe vera, Echinacea, boswelia, broccoli, spinach, eggplant, peas, green beans, cabbage and corn.
N-acetyl glucosamine – shiitake mushroom, shark cartilage, beef cartilage and red algae.
N-acetyl galactosamine – beef cartilage, shark cartilage and red algae.

Herbal sources

Aloe vera – There are more than 240 species of aloe which grows in Africa, the Near East, Asia, Europe, the southern Mediterranean and the Americas. The gel of the Aloe vera leaves contains about 200 health promoting compounds including 20 minerals, 18 amino acids and 12 vitamins. The nutrient gel provides your body with 3 glyconutrients such as glucose, mannose and xylose.The Aloe vera gel reduces inflammation, itching, and pain when topically applied on the skin. The Aloe vera juice which is loaded with phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins and amino acids works as an anti-inflammatory agent in the digestive tract and is often used to ease heart burn and constipation.
Mushrooms – edible mushrooms are the richest source of glyconutrients. The health benefits of mushrooms have been known for more than 5000 years. Several varieties of mushrooms offer immunomodulatory, lipid –lowering, anti-tumour and other beneficial or therapeutic health effects without any significant toxicity. Shiitake mushroom is among the foods and herbal medicines in Chinese diet for its ‘anti-aging properties.’ In oriental folk medicine, shiitake mushroom is a food that activates the blood. It is used in the treatments of colds, measles in children, smallpox, bronchial inflammation, stomach-ache, headache, faintness and dropsy (fluid accumulation in tissues).
Shells of crustaceans – one of the essential sugars N-acetyl glucosamine is found in the shell of crustaceans including shrimps, crabs and krill.

Functional role of glycoproteins

Glycoproteins increase natural killer-cell function. These activated killer cells protect the healthy individuals from the effects of toxins and free radicals, which could cause infections and cancer formation. Moreover glycoproteins increase T –cell function and decrease abnormally elevated apoptosis without disturbing the normal balance in the body.

Health benefits

The essential sugars have potent antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antitumor effects. They increase the body’s immunity to viruses including those that cause the common colds, influenza, herpes and hepatitis. Glyconutrients seem to play an important role in immune and hormonal function. Glyconutrients are essential in cellular communication and are important for pregnant and lactating women. Several studies have linked a deficiency of glyconutrients to diseases such as diabetes, ADHD, lupus, infertility and cancer. Glyconutrients have a role in lowering triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins or LDL (the ‘bad’ cholesterol) and raising high-density lipoproteins or HDL (the ‘good’ cholesterol). Glyconutrients have been quite effective in treating disorders associated with an over-active immune system such as allergies and asthma. Glyconutrients may help relieve symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia.  Glyconutrients have produced positive effects in children suffering from ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD ( Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Glyconutrients may even inhibit cancerous tumour growth and tumour cell metastasis.
      Intake of glyconutrients  offer healthy functioning of your immune system

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Health benefits of acid-alkaline food balance

pH balance is one of the most important factors in maintaining health and life. A normal body pH balance is the first line of defense against aging and disease. All body tissues and organs normally maintain pH within narrow range by carefully balancing acidic and alkaline elements. All disease is caused by autotoxication (self-poisoning) due to acid accumulation in the body. Changes in pH alter virtually all body functions. Prolonged acid-alkali imbalance could lead to degenerative diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and rapid aging among others. Alkaline substances such as potassium, calcium and magnesium are needed to neutralize the harmful acids and encourage acid excretion. Nutritionally speaking, the alkaline foods provide greater amounts of alkaline substances such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. It is generally accepted that diet is an important source of the alkali and acids one’s body needs. Balance body pH will give you more natural vitality, better metabolism and less internal and external signs of aging.

The acid-alkaline theory of disease

In his book A new Health Era, Dr. William Howard Hay (1933) stated that all disease is caused by acid accumulation in the body. This acid-alkaline theory of disease is an over-simplification. In his book My Journey to the Fountain of Youth, Azahara Carter stated that there are two principles underlying the concept of acid-alkaline balance: first those factors such as diet, age, lifestyle habits and emotional state contribute to an overly acidic system and second that an overly acidic system is a breeding ground for disease. It is probable that the acid –alkaline imbalance can be a large factor in the onset of serious health issues such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, arthritis, kidney problems, chronic fatigue and many other health challenges.

Acid-forming and alkaline- forming foods

Depending on the chemical composition of the metabolized foods (known as ‘ash’), the foods are categorized in to acid-forming and alkaline forming foods.
Acid-forming foods – these foods are not acidic themselves, but form acids in the body during the metabolic process and digestion e.g. animal fats, fork, poultry, beef, bacon and dairy products.
Acidic foods – these foods are acidic, but can have either an acid-forming or an alkaline forming effect in the body e.g. berries, citrus fruits, pulses and sour milk.
Alkaline foods and alkali-forming foods – The strength of the alkali in alkaline foods does not reflect their alkali forming qualities in the body. Alkali-forming foods are not alkaline themselves, but they possess good alkali- forming and de-acidifying qualities e.g. most fresh vegetables, leafy greens, potato, bananas, spinach, celery and melon.

Health effects of acid/ alkaline imbalance

The acid / alkaline balance in the body is central to good health. The normal waste products of cellular metabolism are acid. The body needs alkaline to balance the acid out and the only source of alkaline is from the food we consume or the correct supplements we take. A healthy diet should consist of approximately 75% alkaline ash-forming foods and 25% acid ash-forming foods. Usually the proportion of acid forming food we consume is much higher than that of alkaline food.
Acidic waste can seriously damage body cells and vital organs. An acidic environment results in lack of energy, chronic fatigue and susceptibility to disease. A build up of acidity decreases the body’s ability to absorb minerals and other nutrients; decrease energy production in cells; decrease the body’s ability to repair damaged cells and decrease its ability to detoxify heavy metals. Most cancer cells thrive in an acidic environment.  Inflammatory disease, arthritis, respiratory conditions and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in acidic environment. A build up of acidity prevents body organs from functioning properly, thickens the blood and starts to dissolve the linings of the arteries.
On the other hand an alkaline environment helps to heal the body, slower aging process, and relives suffering from colds, headaches and the flu.

Symptoms of body pH imbalance

The symptoms of excess body acidity include fluctuating energy levels, mental fatigue and dullness, depression, headaches, lower back pain, decreased vitality, irritability and sinus-related problems. The symptoms of excessive alkalinity include tension, nervousness, muscle tension or spasms, slow recovery from injuries and travelling muscle pain.

Nutritional balance

Right combination of green raw foods, whole foods, vegetables, juices, herbs and water will reduce the build up of acid, toxins and free radicals from oxidation and promote a healing body environment.
60/40: To maintain health, the diet should consist of 60% alkaline –forming foods and 40% acid-forming foods.
80/20: To restore health, the diet should consist of 80% alkaline-forming foods and 20% acid-forming foods.
Dr. Robert Young heralds that a diet that is made up of 80% alkaline producing foods and 20% acid producing foods will allow people to achieve their healthier bodies and healthier lives.
Generally alkaline –forming foods include most fruits, green vegetables, peas, beans, lentils, spices, herbs and seasonings, seeds and nuts. Generally acid – forming foods include meat, fish, poultry, dairy, eggs, grains and legumes. Processed, micro-waved, refined and fried foods, soft drinks, alcohol and coffee produce acids.

Concluding remarks

Human body is slightly alkaline and therefore it is better for your health to eat a diet composed of alkaline foods. Disease begins when our bodies turn acidic. In his book How to get well (1984), Paavo Airola, a naturopath said that, “acidosis or over-acidity in the body tissues, is one of the basic causes of disease, especially the arthritic and rheumatic diseases.” Another author Michael Colgan in his book The New Nutrition (1996) mentioned that, “acidosis destroys bones because the body has to steal alkalizing minerals from them to keep the blood pH from dropping into the acid range.” Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg won the 1931 Nobel Prize in Physiology for proving that cancer can’t survive in an alkaline, oxygen- rich environment, but thrives in an acidic, low-oxygen environment. Our health is directly related to the condition of our internal body fluids. The condition of our internal bodily fluids is directly influenced by the foods we eat and by our daily activities. Eat a diet that helps your body maintain the correct acid-alkaline balance.
              Eat more alkaline foods and less acidic foods
                     Balance your pH for better health.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Edward de Bono's Lateral Thinking

The term ‘lateral thinking’ was coined in 1967 by Edward de Bono, a Maltese psychologist, physician, and writer. Two of his most well known concepts are lateral thinking (de Bono 1977) and the six thinking hats (de Bono 1999).  ‘Lateral’ comes from the Latin word laterus meaning ‘a side.’ The process of lateral thinking – generation of novel solutions to problems- literally means sideways thinking.  According to de Bono (1990), information patterns are stable cognitive entities such as concepts, ideas, thoughts and images, which exist in our minds and which provide a perspective that directs information processing/thinking/problem solving in a particular way. The concept of lateral thinking is insight restructuring and this is brought about through the rearrangement of information. Rearrangement is the basis of lateral thinking and rearrangement means escape from the rigid patterns established by experience. Lateral thinking is the type of thinking that aims to broaden the knowledge base through the generation of new possibilities.  Lateral thinking systematically forces thinking towards insight, creativity and innovation. Lateral thinking is both an attitude and a method of using information.

Hypothesis of lateral thinking
Lateral thinking is based on the hypothesis that the human brain is a self-organizing information processor in which the output depends upon both internal and external environment and on previous experience. Thinking laterally deliberately disrupts the established cognitive patterns and the information is processed differently. The outcome is the generation of   a novel perspective which is often referred to as an ‘aha’ moment.


The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines lateral thinking as ‘seeking to solve problems by unorthodox or apparently illogical methods’. Lateral thinking, according to de Bono, “tries to restructure information patterns by putting things together in a different way.” Lateral thinking is ‘out-of –the-box ‘non-linear thinking to be differentiated from logical, extrapolative thinking. Lateral thinking is moving sideways and looking at problems from multiple angles and perspectives.

Principle of lateral thinking

To get a different perspective on a problem, try breaking the elements up and recombining them in a different way (perhaps randomly).

Vertical and lateral thinking Bono divides thinking into two methods: vertical thinking and lateral thinking. Vertical thinking involves the implementation and utilization of already existent ideas (“digging the same hole deeper”) whereas lateral thinking involves developing new ideas (“digging a hole somewhere else”). According to de Bono, two processes necessary to stimulate lateral thinking are ‘escape’ and ‘provocation.’ Escape consists of rejecting assumptions and pre-formed concepts by shifting perspectives and provocation consists primarily suspending judgement (Murray 1992). The formal ways to set up provocations include escape, reversal, exaggeration, distortion and wishful thinking.
De Bono contrasted vertical to lateral thinking in the following ways: vertical thinking focuses on continuity; lateral thinking focuses on discontinuity. Vertical thinking chooses, lateral thinking changes; Vertical thinking is concerned with stability, lateral thinking is concerned with instability; Vertical thinking searches for what is right, lateral thinking searches for what is different; Vertical thinking is analytical, lateral thinking is provocative; vertical thinking is concerned with where an idea came from, lateral thinking is concerned with where the idea is going; vertical thinking moves in the most likely directions, lateral thinking moves in the least likely directions; vertical thinking develops an idea, lateral thinking discovers the idea.

Lateral thinking methods

Alternatives – using concepts as a breeding ground for new ideas.
Focus – targeting thinking.
Challenge – breaking free from the limits of current assumptions.
Random entry – inserting unconnected input to open up new lines of thinking.
Provocation and movement – generating illogical statements and using them as stepping stones to usable new ideas.
Harvesting – capturing creative output.
Treatment of ideas – developing ideas and shaping them to fit an organization or situation.

Lateral thinking techniques

The reversing technique involves examining a problem by turning it completely around inside out, or upside down.
The analogy technique involves developing a statement about similarities among objects, persons and situations.
The cross-fertilization technique involves asking experts from other fields to view the problem and suggest methods for solving it from their own areas of expertise.
The mixing metaphors involves using a metaphor to bring a new look to a situation or problem.
The random juxtaposition involves introducing a completely new notion to allow more ideas to be generated.

Critical factors related to lateral thinking

1.  Focus on dominant ideas that come to mind that polarize perception of a problem.
2. Look at the multiple perspectives of the problem.
3. Relax the logical thinking process.
4. Allow ‘outside of the box’ ideas to come to mind and be considered even though they do not fit into the logical, scientific thinking pattern.

Steps in lateral thinking process

1.  Escape from clichés and fixed patterns
2. Challenges assumptions
3. Generate alternatives
4. Jump to new ideas and then see what happens.
5. Find new entry points from which to move forward.

Technique of six thinking hats (STH)

This method uses six different ‘natures’ of thought, each represented by a different coloured ‘hat’(real or imaginary). The hats are designed to foster ‘parallel thinking’ during group problem –solving efforts. The same hat or way of thinking is adopted by all group members, thus creating a shared focus. De Bono (1999) considered the hats as ‘direction labels for thinking.’
1. White hat thinking – information –based thinking – calls for facts and figures.
2. Red hat thinking – emotional thinking – clarifies emotional reactions to issues.
3. Black hat thinking – critical thinking – assesses the risk.
4. Yellow hat thinking – positive or optimistic thinking – looks at the benefits.
5. Green hat thinking – imaginative thinking – focuses on creative thinking.
6. Blue hat thinking – thinking about thinking – manages thinking process.

Benefits of lateral thinking

1.  Lateral thinking is essentially a problem-solving technique or useful habit of mind. Lateral thinking is searching for side entrances rather than using a front –door approach to resolving a problem. Lateral thinking causes a shift in thinking or perception; it completely breaks from previous thoughts or paradigms.
2. Lateral thinking leads to innovation, which in turn, leads to realistic solutions. Think laterally helps to increase the range of options or more alternate ideas available and can often help to overcome tricky problems. Lateral thinking even turns problems into opportunities.
3. Lateral thinking enhances the effectiveness of vertical thinking by challenging the arrogance and the cliché-pattern of thinking associated with logic.
4. Lateral thinking develops an awareness of current ideas and practices; also aids in the development of new ideas.

Final thoughts

Lateral thinking is not generally a natural phenomenon. It is a skill that can be developed through regular practice and with a willingness to try something different. Vertical thinking is concerned with digging the same hole deeper. Lateral thinking is concerned with digging the hole somewhere else (Edward de Bono 1977). Lateral thinking generates ideas and vertical thinking develops them (De Bono 1968). We are educated to be analytical logical thinkers. Most of our thinking is analytical, convergent, critical and left-brain thinking. There are many other ways of thinking or methods for exploring multiple possibilities and approaches instead of pursuing a single approach.
                             Think laterally and turn problems into opportunities

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Health benefits of dietary prebiotics

Prebiotics have been an integral part of normal human diet for many centuaries. Prebiotics are essential specific colonic nutrients that have the potential to considerably influence whole body’s physiology and consequently health and wellbeing. Prebiotics affect specifically and selectively the indigenous beneficial bacteria. Prebiotics are able to alter the colonic microbiota toward a healthier composition by increasing for example, numbers of saccharolytic species while reducing putrefactive microorganisms. Some prebiotics are added to foods to improve food quality characteristics such as mouth feel and other textural aspects. Prebiotics have been used as low calorie fat replacers. Human milk can be considered as the original prebiotic for gut microflora management in breast –fed infants.


Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient which beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth of and/ or activating the metabolism of one (or more) health promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract (Gibson and Roberfroid 1995).
A dietary probiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus confers upon host wellbeing and health (Gibson et al 2004).

Prebiotic concept

A prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health. In order for s food ingredient to be classified as a prebiotic it must
1)  Be neither hydrolysed nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract;
2) Be a selective substrate for one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria commensal to the colon, which are stimulated to grow and/or are metabolically activated;
3) Consequently, be able to alter the colonic flora in favour of a healthier composition and
4) Induce luminal or systemic effects that are beneficial to the host health.
Synbiotics –probiotics may be used in conjunction with specific substrates (prebiotics) for growth (e.g. a fructooligosaccharide in conjunction with a Bifidobacterial strain or lactitol in conjunction with a lactobacillus organism). This combination could improve the survival of the probiotic organism in the host because its specific substrate is readily available for its fermentation.

Recognized prebiotics

The common prebiotics in use include fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galcto-oligosacchardes (GOS),soy-oligosaccharides (SOS), inulins, lactulose and pyredextrins,. The majority of studies carried out to date have focused on inulin, FOS and GOS (Macfarlane et al 2008).

Emergent prebiotics

Emergent prebiotics include genti-oligosaccharides,gluco-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides(IMO),lactosucrose, levans, pectic-oligosaccharides,resistant starch, sugar alcohols and xylo-oligisaccharides (XOS).

Prebiotic mechanism of action

1. Produce short chain fatty acids during fermentation of probiotic carbohydrates.
2. Increase fecal weight and mildly reduce luminal colon pH.
3. Stimulate the growth of carbohydrate fermenting bacteria.
4. Lower the concentration putrefactive, toxic, mutagenic or genotoxic substances.
5. Decrease the concentration of nitrogenous end-products and reductive enzymes.
6. The Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli exhibit low b-glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity.
7. Enhance immunity and modulate mucin production.

Prebiotic food sources

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) is a naturally occurring prebiotic compound found in many edible sources such as artichokes, bananas, honey, onion, garlic, barley and others. Another prebiotic compound inulin is naturally found in chicory roots, wheat, onion, garlic, bananas, fruits and vegetables.Examples of food sources rich in prebiotics are whole grain, honey, banana, garlic,onion,tomato, leek, artichoke and chicory.

Prebiotic characteristics

1.       Non-digestible or partially digestible
2.       Non-absorbable in the small intestine
3.       Well fermented by beneficial bacteria in the gut and
4.       Selective stimulation of growth and activity of intestinal bacteria.

Metabolic fate of prebiotics

Inulin and oligofructose are not hydrolysed in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. In the large intestine, they undergo complete anaerobic fermentation by bacteria. They do not contribute any calories. They are completely fermented in the colon, so inulin is not excreted in the stool.

Prebiotics and dietary fibres

Prebiotics and dietary fibres are not digested by human digestive enzymes, but prebiotics are fermented selectively in the colon and exert their health effects via colonic microbiota. Dietary fibre on the other hand may not be fermented at all and exert health effects in other ways for example improved bowel function.

Colonic microbial system

The colonic microbial system consists of wide range of bacterial species, a variety of different metabolic niches, bacterial habitats and interrelationships. In general intestinal bacteria may be divided into species that exert either harmful or beneficial effects on the host. Pathogenic or harmful effects include diarrhea, infections, liver damage, carcinogenesis and intestinal putrefaction; health promoting effects may be caused by the inhibition of growth of harmful bacteria, stimulation of immune functions, lowering of gas distension problems, improved digestion and absorption of essential nutrients and synthesis of vitamins.

Health promoting functions of Bifidobacteria

Bifidobacterium is a major group of saccharolytic bacteria in the colon and constitutes up to 25% of the total population in the gut of adult and 95% in the new borns (Kawerze et al 1981). Bifidobacteria produce strong acids as metabolic end products (acetate, lactate), lower the pH and may exert an antibacterial effect. Bifidobacteria produce vitamins largely of the B – group. Bifidobacteria produce certain immunomodulators, which promote immunological attack on malignant cells. Bifidobacteria have been used to restore the normal intestinal flora during antibiotic therapy (Korshunov et al 1985). 

Health benefits of  dietary prebiotics

1)      Increase the absorption of dietary minerals such as calcium, magnesium and iron.
2)      Reduce the risk of colon cancer.
3)      Reduce cholesterol and blood lipids.
4)      Prevent gastrointestinal tract infections.
5)      Increase growth of Bifidobacteria, which has following beneficial effects:
i)        produces nutrients such as B-group vitamins and folic acid.
ii)       Produces digestive enzymes.
iii)     Reduces food intolerance by utilizing residual nutrients from the upper gut.
iv)     Improves nutrient management.
v)      Reduces liver toxins i.e. blood amines and ammonia, by using them as fuels.
vi)     Competitive elimination of pathogenic microorganisms.


Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients. They are selectively fermented by intestinal bacteria ( e.g. lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria). Potential health benefits of prebiotics include increased bioavailability of dietary minerals and reduced risks of various diseases such as cancer, intestinal infections, cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes. Prebiotics are naturally available in several foods such as whole grains, onion, garlic, bananas, fruits and vegetables.
                            Prebiotics are effective for gut health