Monday, March 17, 2014

Human intelligence and success in life

Intelligence is a basic life function that helps an organism adapt to its environment. Intelligence is the mental capacity to acquire knowledge, reason and solve problems effectively. It is the general ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, learn quickly and learn from experience. Intelligence is a combination of the ability to learn, pose problems and solve problems.
Intelligence (or cognitive ability) has been defined the American Psychological Association as the “ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought(Neisser et al 1996). Gardner defines intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems”. The intelligence is most often correlated with the scientific and mathematical thinking. Intelligence is often viewed as the ability to use common patterns of thought to arrive at commonly accepted solutions to problems.   “Knowledge is past; intelligence is present”.

Degree of intelligence and IQ

Intelligence tests indicate an individual’s mental age. They rely on knowledge and the ability to solve problems. Intelligence quotient is the ratio between mental age and chronological age (actual age in calendar years), multiplied by 100.
Scales of intelligence tests 
It is based on three aspects like fluency (time perspective), flexibility (variety perspective) and originality (uniqueness perspective).

Types of intelligence

Robert Sternberg (1985) proposed the triarchic theory of three types of intelligence.
Analytical intelligence is the ability to analyse and evaluate ideas, solve problems and make decisions.
Creative intelligence is the ability to adapt to novel situations. It involves going beyond what is given to generate novel and interesting ideas.
Practical intelligence is the ability to adapt to environment. It includes all the abilities one needs to succeed in everyday life (street smarts). 
Sternberg (1986) generalized intelligence into two principal types like operational intelligence (measurable) and real intelligence (inquires true nature).

Howard Gardner's (1996)  multiple intelligence theory  

It consists of 8/9 separate forms of intelligence.
1.       Verbal/linguistic intelligence (word smart) – is the ability to express themselves clearly and to convert their knowledge into useful products.
2.       Logical/mathematical intelligence (number smart) – is the ability to concentrate on mathematical problems, hypotheses and to think logically.
3.       Spatial/visual intelligence (picture smart) –is the ability of a person think in a three dimensional perspective or intelligence of pictures an images.
4.       Bodily/kinaesthetic intelligence (body smart) – is the ability to manipulate their body or a good hand – eye coordination.
5.       Musical/rhythmic intelligence (music smart) – is the ability to appreciate the musical parameters such as pitch, melody, rhythm or tone.
6.       Intrapersonal intelligence (self smart) – is the ability to introspect and understand oneself in newer dimensions and to understand their strengths and weaknesses.
7.       Interpersonal intelligence (people smart) – is the capacity to improve the rapport and and people management skills.
8.       Naturalist intelligence (nature smart) – is the ability to understand nature and use the gift’s nature for one’s own development.
9.       Philosophical intelligence (existence smart) – is the ability to explore complex philosophical questions.

Parts of intelligence

Physical intelligence (PI) – is constantly scanning body, destroying diseased cells and fighting for survival.

Emotional intelligence (EI) – is perceiving, integrating, understanding and managing emotions.

Spiritual intelligence (SI) – is the expression of innate spiritual qualities through one’s thoughts, actions and attitude.

Mental intelligence (MI) – is one’s ability to analyse, reason, think abstractly, use language, visualize and comprehend knowledge.

Intellectual activity (thinking)

It consists three activities like conception (concept formation: a concept is a general idea), judgement (simple sensory discrimination of positive and negative aspects) and inference (reasoning: analysis= deduction and synthesis= induction)
Conception refers to the process by which ideas developed. The conscious expression or formulation of the abstraction gives to the idea or concept. Judgement is concerned with the conscious formulation of relationships among sense objects, images or ideas. Inference constitutes what is popularly called thinking or reasoning. It is the process by which new facts are obtained from concepts and relationships already apprehended. Inference represents the extension of knowledge without mediation of perception. The process of inference may take 2 general forms, one of which is analytic in nature, the other synthetic. In analysis, one learns to classify, organize and evaluate the information handled. In some cases analysis is based on deduction.  Deduction works by elimination, being a process of dividing the appropriate from inappropriate items of intellectual knowledge.

Theory of successful intelligence

It is the ability to achieve one’s goal in life, given one’s socio-cultural context. It is the ability of capitalizing our strengths and compensating for our weaknesses in order to adapt to, shape and select environment and through a combination of analytical, creative and practical abilities. Intelligence is the engine which provides power for accomplishment and performance. It enables us to learn and develop talents and skills. Intelligence assists in helping to make good choices, solve problems, build meaningful relationships, communicate and do our jobs.

Benefits of developing intelligence 

It helps us to make good choices; it empowers us to do things,  the scope and quality of what we can do; it gives us the power to solve problems; it enables our learning; it endeavors to maintain our harmony and well being.

Inspiring quotes on intelligence

"Knowledge is having the right answer; Intelligence is asking the right question."

"The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination." - Albert Einstein.

"Intelligence rules the world, ignorance carries the burden." -Marcus Garvey.

"Curiosity is free-wheeling intelligence."  -Alistair Cooke.

"Action is the real measure of intelligence."  - Napoleon Hill.

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